lunes, 15 de junio de 2009


Ruta Confederal October 23rd 1937 newspaper, an important discovery made by Miguel Pascual Mira

By José Manuel Serrano Esparza. LHSA

Though it doesn´t affect at all the authenticity of Robert Capa´s Falling Soldier photograph and the real death of a Republican militiaman, both of them utterly proved, there´s an important discovery made by Miguel Pascual Mira, a historian from Alcoi (Alicante), who found an obituary written by Enrique Borrell Fenollar in remembrance of Federico Borrell García (his comrade militiaman during Cerro Muriano area battle on September 5th 1936) in Puerto Escandón (Teruel) and published in one page of the Alcoi anarchist journal Ruta Confederal number 13 of October 23rd 1937, one year and thirty eight days after the death of Federico Borrell García:

The comrade Federico Borrell

It was last year. A day of September, in the afternoon, when the people in arms fought for their freedom on the trenches, after having quelled the traitorous military in the cities.

The Alcoy square of the Republic swarmed with people. The whole people en masse, melt with the same hope - to crush the fascism - went out to bid farewell to a handful of libertarian youngsters; new "crusaders" whom the imperative of the moment impelled to fight for the Justice, new "galley slaves" that with their chests stuffed with revolutionary zeal came out to struggle for the Freedom of the people and to tear away the beautiful Andalusian capital of Córdoba from the talons of cruel fascism.

The sword of Damocles already dangled on some of the comrades.

Running lorries, antifascist cries, leave-takings from relatives, raising fists and most of the multitude with their hands interweaved conveyed the scene an impressive colour. It was the people´s waking up after a long slavery lethargy, and in their revolutionary rouse from sleep they broke the chains linking them to an opprobrious and denigratory past.

I still remember him: haughty, long haired and dark, with his eyes refulging with revolutionary faith, transmitting all of us his characteristic good mood, Federico Borrell, known as the "Taíno" for his closest friends, went with us.

His good temper was what entertained the boring hours of the trip. Quickly, we went on getting into the heart of the rebel Andalucia, leaving behind us, as a liberating trail, some villages already freed from the fascist tyranny, which for some days had felt on their backs the hard boot of the rebel generals.

At dawn of September 5th 1936, we arrived at Cerro Muriano, a little village located a few kilometers from Córdoba and a stronghold of the proletarian Spain where the red and black colours waved proudly.

At two o´clock in the afternoon the Fascist attack on our positions began. Great numbers of mercenary troops attacked our trenches. So, there was the paradoxical case of watching both the Moor turbant and the tricornio of the Guardia Civil.

It was four o´clock in the afternoon when the comrade Taíno died. As a cinematographic version, those moments I lived will be everlasting pass before me.

It was necessary to cover a flank through which the mercenary troops were attacking with more boldness. It was urgent to be in action fast.

The comrade Taíno, heading a group of militiamen, haranguing them with his words and setting an example with facts, went on ahead grabbing his rifle with firm hand unraffled pulse.

The enemy was near. I still see him (Federico Borrell) protecting himself behind a tree, with a smile in his mouth, shooting with calmness and promptness against the mercenary soldiers assaulting us.

In the biggest din of combat, when he was more necessary because of his stamina and resolve, an enemy bullet cut short his life in the prime of his youth, straightly piercing his heart. Without a groan or pain cry, the fascism snatched away one of the best militants of the libertarian movement from us. I still see him lying on the ground behind the tree which sheltered him, with his tousled hair on his face and a blood trickle sprouting from his mouth. Even after being dead, he clutched with his hand the rifle that so many hopes of Freedom had made him conceive!

Rest in peace, comrade Taíno!

Your comrades have known how to avenge you. For each killed antifascist, a thousand of the traitors have fallen.

We promised you, comrade Taíno, that your noble life immolated in the holocaust of Liberty - in the same way as so many others - won´t be fruitless. Your red blood spilled for the Social Justice will be the torch lighting its emancipation way to the world!

We solemnly promise you, comrade Taíno, that the battalion bearing your name will not stop its fighting until seeing the Freedom flag waving through the whole Spain!

E. Borrell Fenollar
Puerto Escandón.

The historian Miguel Pascual Mira, an authority on thirties decade and the Spanish Civil War in Alcoi, in a photograph during seventies.

The only original Spanish language existing sample of this Ruta Confederal newspaper is currently in the Municipal Archive of Alcoi, whose director is José Luis Santonja Cardona,
- University of Alicante Ph. D in History, author of "Church and Society in a Valencian
village Alcoi 1300-1845" (1998), "Teaching and Educative Reform in Alcoi and Ibi during
XVIII Century" (2002), "De Vita Regulari: The Augustinian monks in the XVIII Century Alcoi" (1991), a remarkable scholar on university reform during caroline period, Latinity Study, educative reform in local schools, etc- and there isn´t any doubt about the authenticity of the newspaper and the letter sent by E. Borrell Fenollar from Puerto Escandón (Teruel province) to be published in this anarchist newspaper which appears in the documentary film Los Héroes Nunca Mueren directed by Jan Arnold, when Miguel Pascual Mira browses some binded samples of Ruta Confederal journal until reaching the front page of the quoted number 13 with the drawing titled The Bat of the Crime on the right of it.

The text made by E. Borrell Fenollar remembering his comrade Federico Borrell García is important because of a number of reasons, as we´ll see later.

Frontpage of ¡Milicianos! Taíno El Miliciano Olvidado, one of the books
written by Miguel Pascual Mira on the Spanish Civil War in Alcoi and the
famous Alcoi anarchist militiamen.

The first time I saw Miguel Pascual Mira was in 2004, when I watched the great documentary Film Los Héroes Nunca Mueren with Capa´s Falling Soldier picture as epicenter, directed by Jan Arnold and with Francisco Moreno Gómez and Alex Kershaw as main speakers, along with some very old survivors and witnesses (then little children and whose testimony is highly significant) of that historical September 5th 1936 in Cerro Muriano area.

From the first moment, I was really impressed by the tremendous knowledge displayed by Miguel Pascual Mira regarding the anarchist movement in Alcoi during thirties and all kind of
events and personalities related to CNT, FAI, A.I.T, etc, every time he spoke.

He has got all the data inside his head and is able to improvise an in-depth conversation on these topics without needing to read anything. This is only possible after many years of research and hard work, mainly surveying the archives until becoming an authority on Alcoi anarchist movement during thirties decade. Besides, he´s clearly fascinated by the Spanish Civil War history, and he´s the researcher who has been able to gather more information regarding Federico Borrell García biography and his family.

It doesn´t matter at all if Miguel Pascual Mira hasn´t got any doctorate in History or if he didn´t have the opportunity to go to university. There´re alternative ways to reach deep knowledge, specially hard work, motivation and to have lived in the place of events during the whole of his life, which enables him to thoroughly grasp the very special revolutionary atmosphere reigning supreme those days in Alcoi and highly infused in the famous Alcoyanos anarchist Republican militiamen, who were protagonists of some of the most incredible actions during the Spanish Civil war, above all their fierce attack against the Moroccan Tabor of Regulares professional soldiers of Sáenz of Buruaga´s column when the latter started their onslaught trying to capture Las Malagueñas hill Republican positions inclusing the headquarters in La Casa de Las Malagueñas mansion.

Mainly thanks to the Alcoyanos bravely fighting against the best infantry in the world then (together with the Spanish Legion), the Republican forces on Las Malagueñas hill were able to endure for around 12 hours the steady assault attempts made by Tabor of Regulares men.

Miguel Pascual Mira is probably the most important expert in the world regarding anarchism
in Alcoi during thirties and the Spanish Civil War in this city, as proved by his remarkable book
Horas Robadas, published in 1993, a narration based on the Spanish Civil War in Alcoi, with a total of 463 pages, 216 of them being text and the rest authentic pictures of that period and all
kind of documents and ¡Milicianos!. If we add to this the huge quantity of information, pictures,
documents, etc, found by him through a lot of years of private research, there´s no doubt that he
has become a world class authority on thirties decade and the Spanish Civil War in Alcoi.

Los Héroes Nunca Mueren, the best documentary film made till now on the
most famous photograph made by Robert Capa and the events that took place
in Cerro Muriano area on September 5th 1936.

In this documentary film, the historian of the Spanish Civil War Miguel Pascual
Mira analyzes in depth the context which brought about the march of the
anarchist militiamen from Alcoi (one of them being Federico Borrell García)
to Cerro Muriano, and shows four very important documents: the number 13 of
the anarchist magazine Ruta Confederal dated October 23rd 1937 including
the obituary letter written by Enrique Borrell García in remembrance of his
comrade Taíno, where he explains the circumstances of his death in Las
Malagueñas hill on September 5th 1936; a list of the Alcoi Committee of Militias
dated September 5th 1936 with the militiamen who must be paid their salaries,
Taíno being amongst them; another list of the Alcoi Committee of Militias dated
September 12th 1936, where the Taíno dones´t appear any more; and a last
list of casualties of the Alcoi Committe of Militias dated November 17th 1936
including fifteen militiamen from Alcoi killed or missing in combat, with the names,
surnames and address of each one in Alcoi, in which Federico Borrell García
appears in eighth position.

In the quoted documentary film Los Héroes Nunca Mueren (Suevia Films), there are some moments in which the historian Miguel Pascual Mira appears (both inside the Alcoi archive
- one of the best of Spain on the Spanish Civil War- and with the teacher and also historian
from Alcoi Angel Beneito Lloris - Ph. D in History, Head of Studies of the IES Andreu Sempere and member of the Centre Alcoiá d´Estudis Històrics i Arqueològics, author of the excellent book El Hospital Sueco Noruego de Alcoi durante la Guerra Civil Española, Alfa Ediciones Gráficas, Alcoi 2004-) speaking on a vast array of subjects related to anarchism in Alcoi during thirties and specially during the Spanish Civil War, explaining how the CNT was the strongest force in Alcoi and since the Spanish Republic, the very radicali-zation of the conflicts provokes that the most exalted elements are among the ruling leaders, the differences of classes are great and things become more and more violent. Even, the CNT has in Alcoi a Center of Social Studies as a kind of social laboratory including libertarian youngsters and members of the FAI.

In spite of not affecting the totally proved authenticity of Capa´s most famous picture and the
real death of the man appearing in it because of a 7 x 57 mm Mauser bullet piercing his heart in the wheat covered slope between 9:30 and 10:30 in the morning of that September day of 1936 (together with a second authentic picture made by Capa some seconds after the most famous militiaman and showing another shot militiaman not dying instantly but very seriously injured - who would probably die within some minutes-), the text discovered by Miguel Pascual Mira and written by E. Borrell García in Puerto Escandón and published in the number 13 of October 23rd 1937 of the anarchist newspaper Ruta Confederal is very important, because of three main reasons:

a) There´s a high probability that it means that the man appearing in the famous Capa´s Falling Soldier photograph is not Federico Borrell García, and perhaps there was an identification error by his relatives (his brother Evaristo Borrell García´s widow and his niece Empar Borrell) in 1996 when Mario Brotons Jordá showed them Robert Capa´s most famous picture.

The Falling Soldier picture was not made in the afternoon of September 5th 1936 in Las Malagueñas hill, but between 9:30 h and 10:30 h in the morning in Cerro de La Coja, a place approximately two kilometres from Las Malagueñas hill in north direction.

In these respect, there have been some people stating that the Falling Soldier picture was taken in "Cerro de La Coja (Las Malagueñas hill)", as if Cerro de La Coja was inside Las Malagueñas hill.

That´s completely false. One thing is Cerro de La Coja -on the east outskirts of Cerro Muriano village- and another one is Las Malagueñas hill. They are two utterly different places, around two kilometers from each other, and the landscape and vegetation are not similar at all, the main distinctive factor - among many others- being the highly lavish profusion of oak trees everywhere in Las Malagueñas hill.

Enrique Borrell Fenollar makes an accurate description on how he saw Federico Borrell García die in one spot of Las Malagueñas hill around four o´clock in the afternoon of September 5th 1936.

And evidently, his report of Federico Borrell death is very different from the circumstances appearing in the famous Falling Soldier photograph made by Robert Capa, so I think that for any reason there was maybe an identification error by Evaristo Borrell García´s (Federico Borrell´s brother) widow and Empar Borrell (Federico Borrell´s niece) in 1996.

Obviously, the logical thing was to think that the most suitable persons to identify a dead man are his living relatives, but sometimes these things happen, and if there was an identification error by Federico Borrell´s relatives, neither Robert Capa, Magnum Agency or ICP are guilty of anything in this respect.

Sometimes these things happen, including the resemblance of Federico Borrell García with the man appearing in the most famous picture made by Robert Capa, though it´s also true that the Falling Soldier seems to be a man in his thirties while Federico Borrell García, born in Benilloba (Alicante) in 1912, was 24 years old in 1936.

Indeed, truth is that immense majority of researchers who have investigated this picture thought that Federico Borrell´s relatives had correctly identified him in Capa´s picture, and they expressed it with high conviction.

But in my viewpoint, the description of the death of Federico Borrell García made by E. Borrell Fenollar highly makes sense: Las Malagueñas hill area is full of oak trees (this aspect is also mentioned by Clemente Cimorra in his article written for La Voz newspaper analyzed in and E. Borrell Fenollar assures having seen Federico Borrell die because of an enemy bullet on his heart while he was sheltering behind a tree and also states remembering him lying already dead on the ground behind the quoted tree (undoubtedly an oak tree) with his tousled hair on his face and a blood trickle sprouting from his mouth.

Los Héroes Nunca Mueren, a great documentary film directed by Jan Arnold,
in which appear and speak a lot of experts in the topic and war photojournalists,
- Alex Kershaw: Robert Capa biographer.
- Francisco Moreno Gómez: World top authority on the Spanish Civil War in
Córdoba province.
- Bruno Arnold: War photographer since 1956.
- Gervasio Sánchez: War photographer since 1982.
- Horst Faas: War photographer since 1960.
- Federico Mayor Zaragoza: General Director of the UNESCO between 1987 and
1999, Ministry of Education and Science (1981-82), Cofounder of the Severo
Ochoa Center of Molecular Biology of the Autónoma University of Madrid and
the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Complutense University of
Madrid Ph. D in Pharmacy (1958), Professor of Biochemistry of Pharmacy Faculty
at Granada University (1963), Rector of Granada University between 1968 and
1972, Professor of Pharmacy at Autónoma University of Madrid in 1973.
- Alfonso Bañó Morte, a friend of Federico Borrell García, who worked with him
during thirties in the textile factory of El Molinar, in Alcoi, a frequent meeting point of
anarchists then.
- Vicente Segura Vallés, friend of Alfonso Bañó Morte and Federico Borrell García.
He worked with them in the textile factory of El Molinar, in Alcoi, during thirties.
The words by these old anarchists in their eighties needing sticks to be able to walk
are highly revealing to understand the context during the Spanish Civil War.
- A lot of witnesses and survivors of the events, then little children, who were in
Cerro Muriano on September 5th 1936, and whose testimony is very valuable,
because there are very few people living currently who were in the place of events
the day Capa took

So, the famous Falling Soldier Republican militiaman photographed by Robert Capa in the wheat covered slope between 9:30 and 10:30 h in that morning of September 1936, really killed by a 7 x 57 mm Mauser bullet piercing his heart and shot by a Tabor of Regulares sniper from a distance of around 400 meters (there isn´t any doubt in this respect and this point, the most important of all, has been utterly proved and of course the militiaman appearing in Capa´s most famous picture didn´t get up again) wouldn´t be Federico Borrell García, because both the hour of death (four o´clock in the afternoon) and the circumstances of it (being behind a tree when he was killed by an enemy bullet).

Perhaps there was an identification error by Federico Borrell´s relatives. I studied painstakingly Las Malagueñas hill in late nineties, and The Falling Soldier picture was not made in Las Malagueñas hill in the afternoon. It was made between 9:30 and 10:30 h in the utterly deprived of trees and wheat covered slope appearing in the famous picture, which hasn´t anything to do with the Malagueñas hill landscape.

On the other hand, E. Borrell Fenollar description of the type of combat coincides with the
circumstances of the fight between the Republican militiamen defending Las Malagueñas hill
(including the important Casa de Las Malagueñas Republican headquarters in the area) and the feared Moroccan Tabor of Regulares enemy soldiers attacking them.

During a high percentage of September 5th 1936, the Tabors of Regulares of Sáenz of Buruaga´s columns had great difficulties to implement the encircling manoeuver (very difficult to fulfill, because the fascist attacking troops were inferior in numbers to the Republican ones defending the area, and since the first moments in which The Tabor of Regulares men tried to approach to Las Malagueñas hill after having left behind the Old Foundry and Washeries of the Córdoba Copper Company Ltd, they were attacked by Republican forces, specially by the mythical Alcoyanos, which forced them to stay fixed defensively in their positions, being bound to advance meter by meter. Both the professional and ruthless Tabor of Regulares men and the Alcoi militiamen engaged in a tremendous fight which lasted a lot of hours, an authentic rain of bullets between both sides, with the Tabor of Regulares men getting meter by meter into the nearby ravines trying to kill the Republican defenders of Las Malagueñas hill by means of long and medium distance Mauser 7 x 97 mm shots on heart and head, and the Republican militiamen and loyal officers sheltering themselves behind the very abundant oaks, mainly harassing them and opening fire against them.

This brought about a kind of protracted stalemate with the Alcoyanos anarchist militiamen, the Battalion Pedroches of Pozoblanco, the Battalion Terrible of Peñarroya and some forces of Villaviciosa enduring the main Tabors of Regulares attack on Las Malagueñas with north-south direction trying the encircling manoeuvre, while a high percentage of the other Republican units defending Las Malagueñas (loyalist officers from Cartagena, artillery from Murcia, machine guns from Manresa, Battalion Garcés from Villanueva of Córdoba, militiamen from Jaén, etc) faced the central Francoist column under the command of Major Alvarez Rementería (whose march axis, after having departed from Córdoba city, had been the Córdoba-Almadén road, with a night gathering point in its km 4) with 300 Falangists and a section of the engineers company attacking frontally Las Malagueñas hill with south-north direction, and whose final target was the capture of the Casa de Las Malagueñas, though because of the very stubborn Republican defense it would be finally captured by the Tábor of regulares men at approximately 22:00 h in the night of September 5th 1936.

In any case, the two really most important things in this story are the authenticity of the picture, that Capa didn´t use any trick, and that the man appearing in the Falling Soldier picture was really killed. And of course, he didn´t get up again as some people have said or suggested.

I deem that Richard Whelan was right when he said that some people, because of different reasons, are attaching too much importance to the identity of the man in the photograph, because this extraordinary image symbolizes the quintessential Unknown Loyalist Soldier of
the Spanish Civil War and the picture seems to depict the Republican Spain, charging forward
to defend itself and being struck down.

It´s also true that in the page 72 of the superb book This is War! ROBERT CAPA at work published by ICP / STEIDL (a jewel for any top-notch photography enthusiasts, including top-notch pictures made by Capa in Spain, China, D-Day, Germany, etc) and written by Richard Whelan (the best biographer of Capa of all time), there´s a comparison between an enlargement family photograph of Federico Borrell García made around 1936 showing his head and shoulders and another enlargement from the man on the far left of the picture preceding the Falling Soldier in which there are 11 militiamen brandishing rifles and a loyalist officer with his cap, all of them on a trench in the wheat covered slope (the only one of them wearing white clothes), and they have the same high forehead, large ears, heavy eyebrows, downturning lower lip and pronounced jutting chin.

This is a complex topic.

Obviously, to know the identity of the man really killed by an enemy bullet appearing in the Falling Soldier picture made by Capa, along with its exact location, would be important and interesting, but not decisive for the story, because the gist of the topic won´t change: though perhaps this militiaman is not Federico Borrell García, the depicted death is real, a Republican militiaman died instantly because of a 7 x 57 mm Mauser bullet piercing his heart and paralysing his vital functions
because of the shock, Robert Capa didn´t use any ruse, and you can be sure: the most famous
Republican militiaman didn´t get up again after having been killed. And those are the most
important and decisive aspects of the Moment of Death photograph made by Robert Capa.

In this regard, the words said by Angel Beneito Lloris in Los Héroes Nunca Mueren documentary film are very important:
" Taíno has been very mythicized, whether he is or not the man appearing in Capa´s famous picture. I think that´s not the matter. I do believe that it´s all about the people who went in the Alcoi column marching to the war. They all were Taínos. They were people wanting to defend their ideas, their liberties that they had managed to attain with great effort and casualties: freedom of expression, freedom of participation, freedom of cult, right of the woman to vote, etc. And they realize that all of this can be in danger because fascism is spreading throughout Europe. They know it and go out to defend their ideals ".

Horas Robadas, a narration based on the Spanish Civil War in Alcoi. Another
very interesting and well documented book written by the historian Miguel Pascual Mira.

b) I´m convinced that E. Borrell Fenollar is one of the Alcoi militiamen who escaped from Las Malagueñas hill together with the Republican high command, Clemente Cimorra, Gerda Taro and other surviving Republican loyalist officers and militiamen, when around 21:00-21:30 h in the night of September 5th 1936 the retreat was decided on realizing that it was impossible to contain the Tabor of Regulares mercenary troops attack and avoid the capture of the Casa de Las Malagueñas Republican headquarters any more.

There´s no doubt now: the Republican forces defending Las Malagueñas had until the last moment an open escape route open towards Cerro Muriano village and Colonel Sáenz of Buruaga´s column had great difficulties to fulfil the encircling manoeuvre during the whole day, not being able to fully 100% accomplish it until approximately 22:00 h in the night of September 5th 1936.

On the other hand, Enrique Borrell Fenollar speaks about enemy Guardia Civil men among the enemy troops attaking them.

He´s right and remembers very well the events: The Republican forces in Las Malagueñas were attacked by the bulk of Colonel Sáenz of Buruaga´s column, which included the Tábor of regulares from Melilla (except one section, and many of them on horse), the squadron of Regulares nº 3 of Ceuta on foot and the squadron of Regulares of Alhucemas also on foot (both of them under the command of major Gerardo Figuerola), the Cádiz Infantry Battalion nº 33, a company of Guardia Civil, and two sections of the mixed company of engineers.

There isn´t any doubt: The knowledge of E. Borrell Fenollar about what happened in Las Malagueñas hill on September 5th 1936 is high and above all first hand. He fought there against the Tabor of Regulares professional soldiers and watched some Guardia Civil men also attacking them. This is a very specific datum.

c) E. Borrell Fenollar also reports about the long trip made by the Columna Alcoyana until arriving at Cerro Muriano area (though a part of it had previously separated going to Espejo).

Gerda Taro and Robert Capa made some pictures of these exhausted Republican militiamen sleeping on the ground (there wasn´t any other place available for them) and neither of the two foreign photographers ordered them to lie on the terrain to fake that they had been killed by enemy bullets. Both photographers simply took the pictures, along with other photographs in which other overenjoyed and highly spirited militiamen, imbued with high doses of enthusiasm, made all kind of movements, drills, runs, simulating of firing, simulating going against the enemy, etc, on the trench and wheat covered slope. Such was the expectation raised among the militiamen by Robert Capa and Gerda Taro, not only as photographers, but also as foreigners, that there´s no doubt that the Republican militiamen on the wheat covered slope that day (Robert Capa didn´t order them to go there) yearned to be photographed. Capa and Taro simply took the pictures the best they could and both Capa and Taro moved quickly trying to capture everything, to get different angles, etc, as can be observed in the photographs.

Apart from the important discovery of Enrique Borrell Fenollar obituary in remembrance of his comrade Federico Borrell Taíno killed in Las Malagueñas hill around 16:00 h in the afternoon on September 5th 1936 and published in the number 13 of the Alcoi anarchist journal Ruta Confederal, the historian of the Spanish Civil War Miguel Pascual Mira also states in one of his appearances in Los Héroes Nunca Mueren that currently it´s possible to make a complete list of the Alcoi militiamen who went to Espejo and Cerro Muriano. Even, though Taíno´s death is not officially registered anywhere, he has found two more highly important documents in the Alcoi archive which he shows in the documentary film Los Héroes Nunca Mueren:

a) A September 5th 1936 list of Alcoi militiamen which every comittee of militias handed over to the Revolutionary Committe in order that they were paid their salaries. Federico Borrell García, the "Taíno" is in it, but in the list corresponding to September 12nd 1936 he isn´t, so Miguel Pascual Mira states that he is convinced that there´s no doubt that Federico Borrell García, the "Taíno", died on September 5th 1936, something which is confirmed by E. Borrell Fenollar obituary in the number 13 of Alcoi Ruta Confederal anarchist newspaper.

b) A November 17th 1936 list of fifteen Alcoi militiamen killed or missing in campaign, in order to pay their weekly salaries, in which Federico Borrell García appears in eighth position with the exact address where he lived in Alcoi: Avda 14 Abril, 56. Regarding the other fourteen Alcoi militiamen, comrades of Taíno, there´s the same accuracy: exact name and surnames of each man and the address where they had their abode in Alcoi.

There isn´t any doubt about the authenticity of these two documents which are also inside the Alcoi Municipal Archive.

The historian Miguel Pascual Mira in a recent picture.

Text Inscribed in the Registry of the Intellectual Property of Madrid. Copyright Jose Manuel Serrano Esparza. LHSA

Texto Inscrito en el Registro Territorial de la Propiedad Intelectual de Madrid. Copyright Jose Manuel Serrano Esparza. LHSA